In Medieval times, samurai ascended to power, occupying the highest rung of the social hierarchy and assuming political control over Japan. Notably, samurai also played a pivotal role in the development of Japanese tea culture, leaving a lasting impact on its evolution.
Eisai and the Influence of Tea on Samurai
Eisai, credited with introducing matcha to Japan, presented teas and his self-authored book on the health benefits of tea as gifts to Shogun Sanemoto Minamoto of Kamakura bakufu. A notable incident occurred when the Shogun experienced relief from a hangover, revealing the medicinal properties of tea. This endorsement by the most influential figure in Japan sparked a surge in tea’s popularity among all samurai.
Samurai’s Growing Fascination with Tea
During the Nanbokucho era, figures like Douyo Sasaki became captivated by the game of “Toucha,” a gambling activity centered around guessing tea origins and types. Meanwhile, in the Muromachi era, influential samurai families such as the Ashikaga, Yamana, and Hosokawa, including the Shogun family, owned tea estates in Uji. Consequently, tea culture and the habit of tea drinking permeated samurai society.
The Ashikaga Era and the Rise of Zen-inspired Tea Culture
Under the orders of Shogun Yoshimasa Ashikaga VIII, the Ginkaku temple was constructed in the Ashikaga family’s domain. This temple, embodying the ideals of tranquility and peace known as “Yugen” and “Wabi,” symbolized the prevailing trend of humble beauty. It was during this period that the humble style of Chanoyu, a tea ceremony based on Zen philosophy, gained popularity. After returning from the battlefield, samurai sought solace in the tea ceremony to attain inner peace. Additionally, many samurai avidly collected exquisite and valuable tea utensils as symbols of their power and influence.
Tea Ceremonies in the Edo Era
During the Edo era under the Tokugawa shogunate, grand tea ceremonies hosted by the Shogun and attended by Daimyo (Japanese feudal lords) held significant social and political importance. Chanoyu became a pivotal occasion for Daimyo to demonstrate their status and forge connections. Oribe Furuta and his disciples established the Buke-style Chado, which further promoted Japanese tea culture among samurai and Daimyo. Several Daimyo and samurai dedicated themselves to the tea ceremony, practicing diligently and achieving renown as esteemed tea masters in history.